This article includes a good summary of the current state of HTTP authentication XML.com: httplib2: HTTP Persistence and Authentication, in the context of developing a Python HTTP client library (httplib2) to support what should be supported. Here's the main of argument extracted:
In the past, people have asked me how to protect their web services and I've told them to just use HTTP authentication, by which I meant either Basic or Digest as defined in RFC 2617.Tweet Posted by mofoghlu at March 30, 2006 9:39 AM
For most authentication requirements, using Basic alone isn't really an option since it transmits your name and password unencrypted. Yes, it encodes them as base64, but that's not encryption.
The other option is Digest, which tries to protect your password by not transferring it directly, but uses challenges and hashes to let the client prove to the server that it knows a shared secret.
Here's the "executive summary" of HTTP Digest authentication:
The problem with Digest is that it suffers from too many options, which are implemented non-uniformly, and not always correctly. For example, there is an option to include the entity body in the calculation of the hash, called auth-int. There are also two different kinds of hashing, MD5 and MD5-sess. The server can return a fresh challenge nonce with every response, or the client can include a monotonically increasing nonce-count value with each request. The server also has the option of returning a digest of its own, which is a way the server can prove to the client that it also knows the shared secret.
- The server rejects an unauthenticated request with a challenge. That challenge contains a nonce, a random string generated by the server.
- The client responds with the same request again, but this time with a WWW-Authenticate: header that contains a hash of the supplied nonce, the username, the password, the request URI, and the HTTP method.
The bad news is that current state of security with HTTP is bad. The best interoperable solution is Basic over HTTPS. The good news is that everyone agrees the situation stinks and there are multiple efforts afoot to fix the problem. Just be warned that security is not a one-size-fits-all game and that the result of all this heat and smoke may be several new authentication schemes, each targeted at a different user community.